- At the initiative of Tsar Nicholas II of Rus sia, the representatives of several governments were convened for meetings to agree upon international standards regarding warfare. The conferences were held in The Hague in 1899 and 1907. Several treaties were concluded, but did not fundamentally affect the practice of war, even during the Boer War in South Africa in 1899–1902. Thanks to a gift from American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, the Peace Palace was built during the years 1907 to 1913 at The Hague. It eventually became the seat of the International Court of Justice.See also Pacifism.
Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. EdwART. 2012.
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